Space tech 

Trends and innovation
    The space industry is utilising emerging technologies including 5G, advanced satellite systems, 3D printing, big data, and quantum technology to upgrade and scale activity and operations in space. Many services such as weather forecasting, remote sensing, global positioning system (GPS) navigation, satellite television, and long-distance communications systems critically rely on space infrastructure. Moreover, new SpaceTech trends such as smart propulsion, space robotics, and space traffic management are also gaining traction in the emerging space industry. Together with increasing private investment in the industry, developing the technologies to ease movement, operations, and communications between Earth and space.

Impact Of SpaceTech Industry Trends
    Build small satellites like CubeSats and NanoSats to reduce the economic cost of launching vehicles into space. Companies also develop reusable launch vehicles to further reduce the cost of launching rockets into space. Fast and secure communications using satellites incorporate advancements in hardware like antennae, transmitters, and receivers.
    With an expected growth in space traffic, creating feasible solutions for space travel and traffic management, as well as junk and debris removal. Finally, low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites, along with big data & analytics, play a crucial role in the success of future space exploration and missions.

Small Satellites
    Small satellites are increasingly becoming common in recent years, making it the top trend among SpaceTech trends. Miniaturised satellites allow for cheaper designs and advancements in industrial technologies enable their mass production.   Developing small satellites that enable space companies to conduct missions that large satellites typically struggle with. Moreover, small satellites are well-suited for use in proprietary wireless communications networks, as well as for scientific observation, data gathering, and monitoring the earth using the GPS.
    EnduroSat provides NanoSats and space services to business, exploration companies, and science teams. The NanoSats achieve robust data handling of up-to 10 payloads. The satellites incorporate an embedded operational modes framework that considerably boosts efficiency. The small satellites enable secure communications for telemetry and telecommands using high-speed X-band and K-band frequencies.

Advanced Space Manufacturing
    Space manufacturing adopts innovative technologies to improve space products and services. With the advent of advanced robotics, 3D printing, and light-based manufacturing, innovations and improvements for the space industry also progress.   Large space structures, reusable launch vehicles, space shuttles, and satellite sensors have become a reality, owing to innovations in manufacturing processes. Automation is vital for the space industry and emerging space manufacturers focus on solutions to cater to the needs of space transportation.
    Equatorial Space Systems develops a commercial sub-orbital rocket capable of delivering small payloads above the Karman line, the boundary between space and atmosphere. Designed for cost-effective missions, the Dorado comes in two variants – a single-stage vehicle capable of reaching an apogee of 105 km and a twostage version designed to exceed a target altitude of 250 km. The two rockets provide 3 and 6 minutes of weightlessness, respectively.

Advanced Communications
    At its simplest, space communications rely on two things: a transmitter and a receiver. A transmitter encodes a message onto electromagnetic waves. These waves then flow through space toward the receiver. However, recent technologies in space communication go beyond transmitters and receivers, to offer advanced communication in space through high-capacity antennae, ground stations, and low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites.
    Arctic Space Technologies brings computational power next to the software-driven ground station. Instead of relaying satellite data directly to the cloud and running into data bottlenecks, the decentralises processing power next to the station. This enables true real-time processing, without latency, while reducing bandwidth and storage requirements on the network.

Space Traffic Management
    Of all the man-made LEO satellites, a vast majority of them are now space junk. This includes rocket thrusters, derelict satellites, and most of all, tiny fragments of debris from collisions and explosions. All of this debris threatens the future of space travel. To tackle this situation, developing feasible solutions for debris retrieval and space traffic management.
    ClearSpace, a spin-off from the Swiss EPFL Space Center, develops technologies to remove unresponsive or derelict satellites from space. The small satellite solution finds, captures, and removes man-made space debris repeatedly.

Smart Propulsion
    In-space propulsion is an important subsystem for satellite constellations. Given the costs and environmental impact that come with space missions, companies seek ways to ensure the sustainability of these missions. Hence, global development of several solutions ranging from electric propulsion, green propulsion, and water-based propulsion to iodine-based propulsion systems to propel the next generation of clean rockets in space.
    Dawn Aerospace builds same-day reusable launch vehicles and high-performance, non-toxic propulsion systems for satellites of all sizes. The SmallSat Propulsion Thruster simplifies systems and replaces poisonous hydrazine with nitrous oxide and propene. For CubeSats, it increases capabilities by supplying significantly higher performance than electric-based propulsion systems with the same propellants.

Space Activity Management
    Activity management is an emerging SpaceTech trend that concerns the management of movement and activity in space. Space activities include tourism, industrial missions, satellite servicing, food production, waste disposal, and space station improvement. Such trends create more room for the scientific community, for example, by enabling the study of how living things behave in space.
    Aurora Station. Unlike custom-made one-of-a-kind modules that have been used on the International Space Station (ISS), the modular architecture is configurable in many different ways. Further, with the ISS facing retirement over the next several years, the space station will support space tourism by providing a spacious interior, large observation windows, personal sleeping quarters, and food.

Space Missions
    Space exploration addresses the fundamental questions about our Universe and the history of our solar system. By addressing the challenges related to space exploration, humans find opportunities in advancing mining, material science, and life science research. Space missions also widen the scientific and technological advancements while inspiring the future generation of students, teachers, and researchers worldwide.
    Helios provides in-situ resource utilisation (ISRU) technology to realise the vision of setting permanent lunar and martian bases. The Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor separates the abundant oxides found on Martian and Lunar surfaces. The reactor then converts into oxygen and various metals such as iron, aluminum, and titanium. The also works on storage technology to enable the optimal utilisation of produced oxygen.

Space Mining
    The mining of celestial bodies is shifting from science-fiction (Sci-Fi) to reality. The mining of asteroids by private individuals and companies through advancements in space cameras and satellites aid in the precise location of asteroids. Once located, these celestial bodies can be used to extract minerals such as platinum, gold, iron, or even water. Indeed, the economic incentive for space mining is evident and analysts predict that space mining & extraction activities could potentially translate to a billion-dollar industry.
    A satellite to prospect near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as mining candidates.  Developing a series of different spacecraft for prospecting, exploration, and extraction, with each craft performing a particular mission. The proprietary dataset generated from its Asteroid Prospecting Satellite One (APS1) mission guides explorers to specific mining candidates.

Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellites
    A Low-Earth orbit (LEO) is relatively close to Earth’s surface and is normally at an altitude of less than 1000 km but could be as low as 160 km above Earth. Also, LEO satellites do not always follow a particular path around Earth. This means that there are more routes for satellites in the LEO. This makes it a feasible target for space companies. To this end, scientists develop relevant solutions and techniques to deal with LEO-related challenges, including communication systems and data management.
    WARPSPACE promises LEO satellite operators with optical telecommunication services from 2023 with their optical data relay network in the Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO). This network will develop communication with the LEO satellites using an optical link. Users only have to equip a small optical transceiver that they provides. Further, by using their services, LEO missions aim to utilise the optical network to achieve a 1-Gbps connection.

Space Data
    LEO satellites and multi-satellite constellations are increasingly in use for communication, spying, earth monitoring, and other imaging applications. With large volumes of data from these satellites, there is a need to process, treat, analyse, and manage the information. Tapping into SpaceTech trends of data processing using AI, blockchain, and big data to offer secure data solutions for the space industry.
    Kleos delivers its data products via application programming interfaces (APIs) to suit customer’s requirements. Guardian RF presents unprocessed data from their satellites, suited for companies with their own geo-location analysis or signal intelligence capabilities. The Guardian LOCATE data delivers geo-located RF activity data. Lastly, Guardian UDT is a user-defined data set that allows the selection of specific areas of interest, such as ground station and level of security.